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NORM
[ NORM v. 1.1 | original version ] The Vowel Normalization and Plotting Suite

Vowel Normalization Bibliography

The following bibliography is a work-in-progress - last updated July 2011 - but seeks to be a complete reference list for works on vowel normalization for sociophonetics. Those articles with procedures implemented by NORM are highlighted in bold.

Please note: We provide hyperlinks to articles and resources that are online. However, access to these resources may be limited - i.e., you may need a subscription or access through your library to reach the resource.

Adank, Patti. 2003. Vowel normalization: A perceptual-acoustic study of Dutch vowels. Dissertation, University of Nijmegen.

Adank, Patti, Smits, Roel, and van Hout, Roeland. 2004. A comparison of vowel normalization procedures for language variation research. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 116:3099-107. [ Online: JASA ]

Clopper, Cynthia. 2009. Computational methods for normalization acoustic vowel data for talker differences. Language and Linguistics Compass 3(6): 1430-42. [ Online: Compass ]

Deterding, David. 1990. Speaker normalisation for automatic speech recognition. Dissertation, University of Cambridge.

Disner, Sandra Ferrari. 1980. Evaluation of vowel normalization procedures. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 67:253-61. [ Online: JASA ]

Fabricius, Anne H., Tyler Kendall, and Dominic Watt. 2011. Normalization and plotting. Presentation at the Workshop on Sociophonetics, LSA Summer Institute, Boulder, CO, USA. July 17. [ Online: Slides PDF ]

Fabricius, Anne H., Dominic Watt, and Daniel Ezra Johnson. 2009. A comparison of three speaker-intrinsic vowel formant frequency normalization algorithms for sociophonetics. Language Variation and Change 21:413-35. [ Online: LVC ]

Fant, Gunnar. 1975. Non-uniform vowel normalization. Speech Transmission Laboratory Quarterly Progress and Status Report 2-3:1-19. Reprinted in Raymond D. Kent, Bishnu S. Atal, and Joanne L. Miller (eds.), Papers in Speech Communication: Speech Production. Woodbury, NY: Acoustical Society of America. 445-74.

Flynn, Nicholas. 2011. Comparing vowel formant normalisation procedures. York Working Papers in Linguistics (Series 2) 11: 1-28. [ Online: YPL ]

Flynn, Nicholas and Paul Foulkes. 2011. Comparing vowel formant normalisation procedures. To appear in Proceedings of the 17th ICPhS, Hong Kong.

Fox, Robert A., and Ewa Jacewicz. 2008. Analysis of total vowel space areas in three regional dialects of American English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 123:3068. [ Online: JASA ]

Geng, Christian and Christine Mooshammer. 2009. How to stretch and shrink vowel systems: results from a vowel normalization procedure. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 125(5): 3278-3288. [ Online: JASA ]

Gerstman, Louis. 1968. Classification of self-normalized vowels. IEEE Transactions of Audio Electroacoustics AU-16:78-80. [ Online: IEEE ]

Halberstam, Benjamin, and Lawrence J. Raphael. 2004. Vowel normalization: the role of fundamental frequency and upper formants. Journal of Phonetics 32:423-34. [ Online J. of Phon. ]

Harshman, Richard A., and Papçun, George. 1976. Vowel normalization by linear transformation of each speaker's acoustic space. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 59:S71. [ Online: JASA ]

Hindle, Donald. 1978. Approaches to vowel normalization in the study of natural speech. In D. Sankoff (ed.), Linguistic Variation: Models and Methods. New York: Academic. 161-71.

Holmes, John N. 1986. Normalization in speech perception. In Joseph S. Perkell and Dennis H. Klatt (eds.), Invariance and Variability in Speech Processes. Hillsdale, NJ: Laurence Erlbaum. 346-58.

Iri, Masao. 1959. A mathematical method in phonetics with a special reference to the acoustical structure of Japanese vowels. Gengo Kenkyu 35:23-30.

Jacewicz, E., Fox, R. A., and J. Salmons. 2007. Vowel space areas across dialects and gender. In Proceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, edited by J. Trouvain and W.J. Barry, pp. 1465-1468. Saarbrücken, Germany.

Johnson, Keith. 2006. Resonance in an exemplar-based lexicon: The emergence of social identity and phonology. Journal of Phonetics 34:485-99. [ Online: Science Direct ]

Kendall, Tyler and Thomas, Erik R. 2009. Vowels: Vowel Manipulation, Normalization, and Plotting in R. R package, version 1.0-3. [ Software Package for R: CRAN ]

Kohn, Mary and Charlie Farrington. 2012. Evaluating acoustic speaker normalization algorithms: Evidence from longitudinal child data. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131:2237-48. [ Online JASA ]

Labov, William. 1994. Principles of Linguistic Change. Volume 1: Internal Factors. Oxford, UK/Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Labov, William. 2001. Principles of Linguistic Change. Volume 2: Social Factors. Oxford, UK/Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

Labov, William, Ash, Sharon, and Boberg, Charles. 2006. The Atlas of North American English: Phonology, Phonetics, and Sound Change. A Multimedia Reference Tool. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. [ Online: Mouton Online ]

Lobanov, Boris M. 1971. Classification of Russian vowels spoken by different listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 49:606-08. [ Online: JASA ]

Miller, James D. 1989. Auditory-perceptual interpretation of the vowel. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 85:2114-34. [ Online JASA ]

Miller, James D., Engebretson, A. Maynard, and Vemula, N. Rao. 1980. Vowel normalization: Differences between vowels spoken by children, women, and men. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 68:S33. [ Online: JASA ]

Morrison, Geoffrey S. and Nearey, Terrance M. 2006. A cross-language vowel normalisation procedure. Canadian Acoustics 34:94-5. [ Online: PDF ]

Nearey, Terrance M. 1977. Phonetic Feature Systems for Vowels. Dissertation, University of Alberta. Reprinted 1978 by the Indiana University Linguistics Club. [ Online: PDF ]

Nearey, Terrance M. 1989. Static, dynamic, and relational properties in vowel perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 85:2088-113. [ Online: JASA ]

Nearey, Terrance M. and Assmann, Peter F. 1986. Modeling the role of inherent spectral change in vowel identification. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 80:1297-1308. [ Online: JASA ]

Nearey, Terrance M. and Assmann, Peter F. 2007. Probabilistic "sliding template" models for indirect vowel normalization. In Maria-Josep Solé, Patrice Beddor, and Manjari Ohala (eds.) Experimental Approaches to Phonology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 246-69.

Nordström, P.-E. and Björn Lindblom. 1975. A normalization procedure for vowel formant data. Proceedings of the 8th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Leeds, p. 212. [ Online: PDF ]

Nusbaum, Howard, and Magnuson, James. 1997. Talker normalization: Phonetic constancy as a cognitive process. In Keith Johnson and John W. Mullennix (eds.), Talker Variability in Speech Processing. San Diego: Academic. 109-32.

Pisoni, David B. 1997. Some thoughts on "normalization" in speech perception. In Keith Johnson and John W. Mullennix (eds.), Talker Variability in Speech Processing. San Diego: Academic. 9-32.

Rosner, B. S., and Pickering, J. B. 1994. Vowel Perception and Production. Oxford, UK/ New York: Oxford University Press.

Stevens, Stanley and John Volkman. 1940. The relation of pitch to frequency: a revised scale. American Journal of Psychology 53: 329-353.

Strange, Winifred. 1989. Evolving theories of vowel perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 85:2081-87. [ Online: JASA ]

Syrdal, A. K. and Gopal, H. S. 1986. A perceptual model of vowel recognition based on the auditory representation of American English vowels. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 79:1086-100. [ Online: JASA ]

Thomas, Erik R. 2002. Instrumental phonetics. In J. K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The Handbook of Language Variation and Change. Oxford, UK/ Malden, MA: Blackwell. 168-200.

Thomas, Erik R. 2007. Sociophonetics. In Robert Bayley and Ceil Lucas (eds.), Sociolinguistic Variation: Theories, Methods, and Analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 215-33.

Thomas, Erik R. 2011. Sociophonetics: An Introduction. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Thomas, Erik R. and Kendall, Tyler. 2007. NORM: The vowel normalization and plotting suite. [ You are here. ]

Traunmüller, Hartmut. 1990. Analytical expressions for the tonotopic sensory scale. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 88:97-100. [ Online: JASA ]

Traunmüller, Hartmut. 1997. Auditory scales of frequency representation. [ Online: http://www.ling.su.se/staff/hartmut/bark.htm ]

Verbrugge, Robert R., Strange, Winifred, Shankweiler, Donald P., and Edman, Thomas R. 1976. What information enables a listener to map a talker's vowel space? Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 60:198-212. [ Online: JASA ]

Wassink, Alicia Beckford. 2006. A geometric representation of spectral and temporal vowel features: Quantification of vowel overlap in three linguistic varieties. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 119:2334-50. [ Online: JASA; Software ]

Watt, Dominic and Fabricius, Anne. 2002. Evaluation of a technique for improving the mapping of multiple speakers' vowel spaces in the F1 ~ F2 plane. In D. Nelson, Leeds Working Papers in Linguistics and Phonetics 9:159-73. [ Online: Leeds WPL ]

Watt, Dominic and Anne Fabricius. 2011. A measure of variable planar locations anchored on the centroid of the vowel space: a sociophonetic research tool. To appear in Proceedings of the 17th ICPhS, Hong Kong.

Watt, Dominic, Fabricius, Anne, and Kendall, Tyler. 2011. More on vowels: Plotting and normalization. In Marianna di Paolo and Malcah Yaeger-Dror (eds.), Sociophonetics: A Student's Guide. London: Routledge, 107-118

Yang, Byunggon. 1996. A comparative study of American English and Korean vowels produced by male and female speakers. Journal of Phonetics 24:245-61. [ Online: J. of Phon. ]

Zwicker, E., and Terhardt, E. 1980. Analytical expressions for critical-band rate and critical bandwidth as a function of frequency. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 68:1523-25. [ Online: JASA ]



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NORM v. 1.1
Last Mod: 7/18/2011
© Erik R. Thomas & Tyler Kendall 2007-2014
erthomas [at] ncsu.edu & tsk [at] uoregon.edu